Art Department Glossary for Film & Television

We have researched far and wide and tapped our experiences in the industry to bring you the most thorough art department glossary we could create. We are adding new art department terms every day, so please contact us here, or here, if you have a new word or art department term you would like us to include in our glossary.

This glossary covers general art department terms, key art department related crew positions, set design terminology, and graphic design terminology. We have loosely included Set Dec, Props, Greens, Construction, Scenic, Special Effects, and Visual Effects in this glossary but we are looking to add more comprehensive terms as time goes on for these various departments. We hope you will help us with this.

For a broader filmmaking glossary, we’ve created this guide to film terminology and set jargon here, where you can find your more basic filmmaking terms like ‘call sheet’ and ‘aspect ratio’ among many others.

Click on the various tabs: Positions, Set Design, or Graphic Design to maneuver through the multiple glossary lists.


Art Department Glossary of Terms

General Art DepartmentPositionsSet DesignGraphic Design

Anachronism or Anachronistic: An element, artifact, prop, or furnishing in a film or television show that belongs to a different time or place than the one being shown; often anachronistic elements are deemed as inconsistencies or mistakes. For example: The movie The Favourite was anachronistic because the wheelchair would not have been invented yet.

Atmospheric Animals: Animals which are brought in to make a set more realistic. For example, horses may function in the background as decoration in a horse stable set. (See also: Picture Animals)

Backdrop/Backing: Refers to a large photographic backing or painting for the background of a scene. These large scale photos are printed, hung, and lit behind windows to give the illusion of the outdoors.

Back lot: An undeveloped area, on studio property, in an open-air, outdoor space away from the studio stages, where real-life situations with backgrounds can be filmed.

Back Projection: A photographic technique whereby live action is filmed in front of a transparent screen onto which background action is projected.

Blue-screen: A process whereby actors work in front of an evenly-lit, monochromatic (usually blue or green) background, screen, or backdrop. The background is then replaced in post-production by chroma-keying or optical printer, allowing other footage or computer-generated images (CGI) to form the background image; since 1992, most films use a green-screen.

Breakaway: Destroyable glass objects that are used for stunts or gags in a scene. Can also mean destroyable set pieces or scenery.

Camera Ready: A set that is completed and ready to be recorded to camera; a fully constructed, painted, dressed, rigged, and lit set.

Compositing: The combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images (or sequences of images), often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene. Examples might be incorporating rendered 3D images (CGI) into filmed material, or extracting elements shot in front of blue/green screen. Today most compositing is achieved through digital image manipulation.

Copyright: A form of intellectual property that grants the creator of an original creative work an exclusive legal right to determine whether and under what conditions their original work may be copied and used by others, for a limited time. The exclusive rights are limited by various limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the underlying ideas themselves.

Clearance: An arrangement whereby a company, copyright, or trademark holder agrees to allow a production to show their copyrighted or trademarked intellectual property on camera.

Contact Sheet: A print out of multiple images within a grouping of images available for one particular task. A contact sheet is a useful way of seeing which are the best images to use on any given task from choosing artwork, dressings, props to deciding which research images may be relevant.

Cyclorama: The curved, seamless, floor-to-ceiling backdrop or background used in studios.

Flat: A scenery wall.

Floating: A piece of scenery in a set that is designed to be moved, removed, and/or replaced as needed to allow for lighting, camera, and various production needs.

Forced Perspective: A technique used to create a sense of great distance or to make a space seem much bigger than it is, forced perspective is created by using objects that are vary in size, and placing them specific distances from one another, to create the effect of objects fading into the distance.

Gimbal: The mechanism used to spin or rotate a room, set, or scenery piece on set.

Greeking: Changing trademarks that haven’t been cleared for use within the film.

Green-screen: A process whereby actors work in front of an evenly-lit, monochromatic (usually blue or green) background, screen, or backdrop. The background is then replaced in post-production by chroma-keying or optical printer, allowing other footage or computer-generated images (CGI) to form the background image.

Hero: Any set, set piece, set dressing, vehicle, and/or prop of importance used, held, or mentioned by an actor on screen.

Hot Set: A set where all elements, furnishings and props have been established on camera and finalized and continues to be shot throughout the show. The set is then labeled “Hot Set” to indicate that it should not be changed or disturbed in any form as not to disrupt continuity.

In House: When something is made, printed, or built within the confines of the production grounds instead of sending to an outside company to be made, built, or printed.

Last Looks or Finals: This is the phrase said by the First Assistant Director just before they say “Standby for picture” meaning this is the last chance to make a change so all applicable departments should do their final touches, for example, the makeup artist can run in to quickly remove sweat on an actor or the on-set dresser can run in and remove an errant water bottle that has visibly made its way on set.

Matte Shot: A photographic technique whereby artwork – usually on glass – from a matte artist is combined with live action. Contrast this with back projection or a travelling matte.

Miniature: A smaller-scale model filmed in such a way that it seems like it is a full-scale model.

Mise en scène: “Putting in the scene” in French; refers to the composition and arrangement of visual elements within the frame of film, including costume, set décor, lighting, and character positioning.

Moiré: Undesirable patterns in printed halftones caused by improperly aligned screens.

Motion Capture: An animation technique in which the actions of an animated object are derived automatically from the motion of a real-world actor or object.

ND: Stands for Non-Descript. Art Department is often asked non-descript items to place in the background. For example: A graphic designer may be asked to create ND paperwork which is general paperwork that could be used in the background in any set and is not specific to a certain type of office.

Picture Vehicle: Any vehicle that is seen on screen.

Picture Animal: Any animal that is seen on screen. (Also see: Atmospheric Animals)

Practical: An element that will be adapted, redesigned, or used as originally designed, for actual use as intended on the shoot day often instead of using visual effects or special effects. For example: A scene might require a sink to be practical on the day, meaning it must have running water for the take.

Practicals or Practical Lighting: Any lamp or lighting where the light source is in frame. ‘Practicals’ are lights that are built into your locations or sets like ceiling fixtures, desk and floor lamps, and strings of Christmas lights. It can also refer to headlights from a car, street lamps, televisions, and computers. For example: A DOP might ask that more practicals be brought in, usually meaning they want more lamps, candles, or other light sources built in to the location.

Previsualization or Previs or Previz: The visualizing of complex scenes in a movie before filming. Previsualization is used to describe techniques such as storyboarding, either in the form of charcoal sketches or in digital technology, in the planning and conceptualization of movie scenes.

Principal Photography: The main shooting dates of a film with the lead actors present.

Product Placement: A business arrangement whereby a production agrees to show, for example, the products or logo of a particular company, usually in return for payment or other consideration.

Prop: Anything an actor touches or uses on the set; e.g. phones, guns, cutlery, etc. Movie animals and all food styling (food seen or eaten on set/screen) also fall into this domain.

Raked: A set floor that is angled up from the camera.

Retrofit: Specific physical changes to a location or set to make sure that the design of the film set is believable and seamless.

Schedule: Chart or table in a set of architectural drawings, including data about materials, finishes, equipment, windows, doors, and signage; also a plan for performing work.

Scout: Looking for the right location to shoot in.

Special Effects: An artificial effect used to create an illusion in a movie. Refers to effects produced on the set, as opposed to those created in post-production. Most movie illusions are created in post production. These are called visual effects.

Snot Tape or Clear Butyl or Toffee Tack: Used widely by Prop and Set Decoration departments for securing items to shelves, walls and tables for dressing sets, continuity and safety. The tape is sticky throughout, its pliability gives it the ability to be used in a variety of ways.  It is clear, non-staining and available in 3 sizes.

Spotting Plan or Stage Layout: A ground plan or floor plan for a set or multiple sets which indicate doors and distance from existing stage walls or other sets sharing the same space.

Squib: A small device that replicates a bullet wound, usually by squishing a capsule of fake blood.

Standing Set: A recurring set in a television story-line in which the set remains on a stage throughout an entire season or series, for example, the lead character’s home or place of work. A standing set can also remain on a stage for longer than any one production if it is a commonly needed location that can be rented to new productions, for example, a courtroom, airplane, or jail set.

Storyboard: A sequence of pictures created by a storyboard artist or production illustrator to communicate the desired general visual appearance on camera of a scene or movie.

Studio Tank or Water Tank: A large receptacle that holds water and water machinery to satisfy production needs involving water scenes in a controlled environment within a studio. Essentially it is a larger, more complicated swimming pool for very specific set needs.

Survey or Recce: An inspection or exploration of an area to gather information from a location which will determine if the space is suitable and what needs to be done to the space to make it work for the scene/project. Survey is used in North America while Recce is used in the UK/Europe. Recce is a slang word for “reconnaissance”.

Swing Set or Swing Stage: A set or entire stage that may be reconfigured into several different sets during the course of a film or television show season. Most commonly used in episodic television.

Tech Survey: The final survey or recce of all locations and spaces which are to be shot during principal photography seen back to back over 1-3 days with all techs and key crew in attendance so everyone is on the same page and gathers key information so there are no surprises on the day.

Title Block: A table located in the bottom right corner of a drawing which contains sections for providing the film title, production designer, set designer, set number, set name, location information, and drawing scale- for example 1/4″ = 1′-0″.

Trademark: A recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others. The trademark owner can be an individual, business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a package, a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. It is legally recognized as a type of intellectual property.

Translite: A large scale colour photograph printing on a translucent material, a category of photographic backdrop able to be lit from front or back.

TrueBlock: Trademarked shipping labels by Avery which use ‘TrueBlock’ technology that completely cover everything underneath the label, leaving a bright-white professional appearance on the outside. This adhesive paper is often used in house within an art department to print graphics.

Tuffback Paper: A large format thick low tack adhesive paper that you buy by the roll and apply like vinyl. Tuffback is often used when you need to paint something and you are not able to paint directly to the surface so you paint the tuffback paper then apply it over top the surface. Tuffback is the material of choice in these situations since it is opaque, takes paint well, and comes off smoothly and reliably.

Visual Effects: Alterations to a film’s images during post-production, most often through CGI.

Waler: A horizontal beam used to help support joined flats; also used in concrete formwork.

Wild: A piece of scenery in a set that is designed to be moved, removed, and replaced as needed to allow lighting, camera, or other various production needs.

Armourer: A person who is responsible for weapons on the set of a movie or television show. Duties include providing the correct weapons to suit the era and style of the film, advising the director on use of weapons, choosing the correct blanks, creating a safe set for the use of said weapons, teaching actors about handling and using weapons, making sure use of all weapons is properly licensed, and ensuring the safety of everyone on the set while weapons are in use.

Art Director: A position directly underneath the production designer; manages the artists and craftspeople that create the sets to follow through on the designer’s vision.

Buyer: Purchases or rents the set dressing, decoration, or props.

Concept Illustrator: Creates visuals to convey the vision of the director and/or the production designer.

Construction Co-ordinator: Financial responsibilities include budgeting, tracking costs, and generating reports. Through drawings created in the art department, a construction co-ordinator is directed by the production designer and supervised by the art director to produce the production designer’s “vision” in three dimensions. Also responsible for the physical integrity of the structures built by the construction department.

Head Carpenter: Foreman of all carpenters on set.

Greensman: Organizes and designs the landscaping and greenery in a film.

Leadperson: The foreman of the swing gang and set dressers, supervised by the set decorator.

Matte Artist: A person who creates artwork (usually for the background of a shot) which is included in the movie either via a matte shot or optical printing.

Modeler: A person who develops any three-dimensional object (either inanimate or animate) via specialized software in 3D computer graphics.

On-Set Dresser: A person who maintains the set per the Set Decorator’s requirements. Moves and resets the set decoration to accommodate camera, grip and lighting setups. Responsible for set continuity with script supervisor and property master.

Previsualization Artist: A designer who uses low resolution proxy models, quick OpenGL hardware renderings, and other 3D FX systems to completely conceptualize a sequence that requires either visual FX or character animation with the goal of to producing usable data that will help streamline the production process.

Production Designer: Working with the director and director of photography, the production designer creates the look and feel of the film.

Props Master: Finds or creates every prop that appears in a film.

Scenic Artist: A member of the crew responsible for work which includes the preparation, painting and/or coloration of all textures, plastering, appliqueing on scenery, sets, and properties; the application of all decorative wall or surface coverings; all lettering and sign work (including signs and murals; miniature sets and/or models and properties and the painting and aging in the (construction) studio or on the set of costumes and costume accessories as specified by the costume designer.

Set Decorator: Researches and supervises the procurement of all objects that are used to dress the set, such as drapery, furniture, street items and more, as well as the dressing of each and every set while collaborating with the production designer.

Set Designer or Draughtsman / Draftsperson: The draughtsman who creates the technical drawings of the sets as specified by the production designer. They are responsible for translating a production designer’s vision of the movie’s environment into a set which can be used for filming. The set designer reports to the art director.

Swing Gang: Set dressers who dress and strike sets, as well as pick up and return the dressing. They work apart from the shooting crew, as they are always either prepping a set for shooting or striking it after it’s been shot.

Standby Painter: A scenic artist available during filming for last minute changes.

Abacus: The flat slab on top of a capital, supporting the architrave.

Access Floor: Removable finish flooring raised above the floor structure to allow installation of wiring or ductwork below.

Arcade: A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements.

Arch: Structural device that supports vertical loads by translating them into axial forces.

Armature: The wire or metal frame used to support the creation of a large or oddly shaped structure such as a manufactured tree or statue.

Asymmetry: Elements that when placed on opposite sides of a set, frame, page, line, or plane are not symmetrical.

Balcony: A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet.

Baluster: A vertical supporting element, similar to a small column.

Balustrade: A railing consisting of a row of balusters supporting a rail.

Bay: A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. Often, a bay will protrude from the surface of the wall in which it is situated, thus creating a small, nook-like interior space, often of a rectangular or semi-hexagonal outline. See bay window.

Bay Window: A projecting bay that is lit on all of its projecting sides by windows. See bay.

Bevel: An angled cut at a corner or edge.

Board and batten: A wooden siding treatment in which wide, vertically oriented boards are separated by narrower strips of wood called “battens,” which form the joints between the boards.

Bond (brickwork): Brickwork with overlapping bricks. Types of bond include stretcher, English, header, Flemish, garden wall, herringbone, basket, American, and Chinese.

Brace: A reinforcing and/or stabilizing element of an architectural frame.

Bracket: A projection from a vertical surface that provides structural and/or visual support for overhanging elements such as cornices, balconies, and eaves.

Buttress: Masonry or concrete reinforcement applied to a wall to resist diagonal forces from an arch or vault.

CAD: Computer Aided Design. Almost all set designers and architects work in CAD software and it is very rare to find technical drawings done by hand these days.

Cantilever: An unsupported overhang acting as a lever, like a flagpole sticking out of the side of a wall.

Casement Window: A window frame that is hinged on one vertical side, and which swings open to either the inside or the outside of the building. Casement windows often occur in pairs.

Chalet: A timber dwelling, cottage, or lodge with a gable roof and wide eaves.

Chevron: A design that incorporates a pointed shape similar to an accent mark, common to Art Deco architecture.

CNC: Stands for Computer Numerical Control. This means a computer converts the design produced by Computer Aided Design software (CAD), into numbers. The numbers can be considered to be the coordinates of a graph and they control the movement of the cutter.

CNC Router: A router that comes with the ability to use computer numerical control to route tool paths that enable the machine to function. CNC routers reduce waste and increase productivity, producing various items in a much shorter amount of time than using other machines.

Colonnade: A range of columns that supports a string of continuous arches or a horizontal entablature.

Column: A supporting pillar consisting of a base, a cylindrical shaft, and a capital on top of the shaft. Columns may be plain or ornamental.

Concept: A vision of how a product could be, often explained with hand sketches and rough models.

Corbel: A structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight.

Cornice: A crowning projection at a roof line, often with molding or other classical detail.

Cornice Molding: A decorative strip of wood running just below the eaves of a building. A cornice molding is a cross between a cornice and a molding – a cornice is a crowning projection at a roof line, while a molding is a decorative strip of wood.

Courtyard: An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade.

Crenellation: A sequence of alternating raised and lowered wall sections at the top of a high exterior wall or parapet. Crenellations were originally employed for defensive purposes (one could hide behind a raised wall section while shooting down at enemies from over a lowered wall section), but were later used for decoration. Also known as a battlement.

Crosshatch or Hatching: A pattern of parallel lines applied to an area on a drawing such as section-views.

Cupola: A small, most often dome-like, structure on top of a building.

Decorative Motif: A repeated pattern, image, idea, or theme. In classical architecture, series of urns and continuous or repeated swags of garlands are common decorative motifs.

Dentils: Small rectangular blocks that, when placed together in a row abutting a moulding, suggest a row of teeth.

Detail View: A portion of a view on a drawing, usually larger scale than the view it originated from.

Die Cut: Special shapes cut into a substrate by a steel rule.

Doric Order: Most easily recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, and had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but later more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental.

Dormer Window: A perpendicular window located in a sloping roof; triangular walls join the window to the roof. Dormer windows are sometimes crowned with pediments, and they often light attic sleeping rooms; “dormer” derives from “dormir,” French for “to sleep.”

Double Doors: Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. Double doors are often referred to as “French doors”, due to their preponderance in French architecture.

Eaves: The projecting edge of a roof that overhangs an exterior wall to protect it from the rain.

Eclectic or Eclecticism: A mixing of various architectural styles and ornamentation of the past and present

Elevation View: Architectural drawing of a view of the vertical planes of the building showing their relationship to each other.

Exploded View: A view of a product with all its components separated, usually to show how it is assembled.

Exposed Rafters: Rafters that are exposed to the outside of a building. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed.

Facade: An exterior wall, or face, of a building. The front facade of a building contains the building’s main entrance, the rear facade is the building’s rear exterior wall, and the side facades are a building’s side exterior walls.

Finial: Ornament at the top of a spire or roof.

Finish: An architectural finish is a standard finish characterized by a uniformly good appearance. This finish is most often specified for “exposed” surfaces. Often times we are not using a proper architectural material to finish a surface in the film industry. For example, the paint department might be directed to ‘finish’ a wall or flat/flattage as steel or wood.

Floor Plan: The architectural blueprint of the arrangement of rooms in a building or film set.

Hardware: The metal fittings of a building, such as locks, latches, hinges, handles, and knobs.

Joinery: Woodworking joints in carpentry.

Masonry: Being of stone, brick, or concrete.

Matte: A flat, not glossy finish.

Mezzanine: Intermediate level between a floor and ceiling that occupies a partial area of the floor space.

Millwork: Interior wood finish components of a building or set, including cabinetry, windows, doors, moldings, and stairs.

Model: Physical representation (usually on a smaller scale) of a building, building component, or set.

Moulding: A strip of wood, plaster, or other material with an ornamental profile.

Mullions: The structural units that divide adjacent windows.

NTS: Stands for Not To Scale which is labelled on drawings when a drawing is not drawn perfectly to scale.

Panel: A smooth surface, usually rectangular (or sometimes circular) in shape and framed by a molding, and often featuring decorative, sculptural carving.

Panelling: A millwork wall covering constructed from rigid or semi-rigid components. These are traditionally interlocking wood, but could be plastic or other materials. Panelling was developed in antiquity to make rooms in stone buildings more comfortable. The panels served to insulate the room from the cold stone.

Partition: Interior non-load-bearing wall.

Plinth or Pedestal: The base or platform upon which a column, statue, monument or structure rests. A plinth is a lower terminus of the face trim on a door that is thicker and often wider than the trim which it augments.

Proscenium Arch: An arch framing the opening between the stage and the auditorium in some theatres.

Riser: Vertical face between two treads of a stair; also a raised stage platform or seating platform.

Section View: A drawing view created by cutting through another drawing with a section line.

Skin: The external layer of a structure, building, wall, or furnishing that is visible to the viewer.

Span: Distance between supports.

Tolerance: The amount that dimensions can be wrong without affecting the performance. Each can have its own specification for tolerance. Tolerances may be used to specify allowable variations in strength, stability, the mix of a material, the performance of a system, temperature ranges and so on.

Transom: Window or element, fixed or operable, above a door but within its vertical frame.

Tread: Horizontal surface between two risers of a stair.

Trim: Decorative building elements often used to conceal joints.

Truss: Structural element made up of a triangular arrangement of members that transforms the nonaxial forces acting on it into a set of axial forces on the truss members.

Vault: Arched form.

Veneer: Thin layer, sheet, or facing.

Wainscoting: A broader term referring to decorative panelling used for centuries as: a) a wall accent; b) insulation and; c) to prevent (and cover up) damage to walls. It typically is made of wood and covers the lower three or four feet of an interior wall.

Bitmap: Computer image composed of pixels.

Bleed: A printed area that extends beyond the trimmed edge of a printed piece. Bleed areas generally range from 1/8″ to 1/4″ (3.175 mm to 6.35 mm). Bleeds are produced by printing a piece on a sheet of paper larger than the trim size of the final piece and then cutting away the edges using the crop marks.

Bond (paper): Grade of paper used for photocopying, envelopes, office correspondence, and flyers.

Card Stock: A paper stock that is thicker and more durable than normal writing or printing paper, but thinner and more flexible than other forms of paperboard. Card stock is often used for business cards, postcards, scrapbooking, and other uses which require higher durability than regular paper. The texture is usually smooth, but can be textured, metallic, or glossy.

CMYK: Stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key (black). The primary ink colours that are combined on press or as printed digital output to produce a full range of colours.

Collateral: Ancillary print material used to support brands and marketing campaigns that often need to be recreated for fake brands in film and television.

Cover Stock: Fine printing paper with a basis weight or grammage that is heavier than text or book weight papers. For example, magazine covers require thicker cover paper than the pages inside. Cover stock often has a coated finish on one side or both sides (C1S or C2S, for “coated: one side” or “coated: two sides”) to produce a glossy look and smooth texture.

Crop marks: Marks placed on the edges of a mechanical to indicate where a printed piece should be trimmed.

Deboss: To produce a recessed impression on the surface of a paper by pressing it between two dies.

Die Cut: Special shapes cut into a substrate by a steel rule.

DPI: Stands for dots per inch. Used to measure the resolution of a scanned image. Higher dpi produces higher resolution and more detail.

Emboss: To produce a raised impression on the surface of paper by pressing it between two dies.

Foil Stamp: Where foil and a heated die is stamped onto paper to form a printed impression.

Golden Section: Unique proportional ratio of two divisions of a line such that the smaller of the two is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two.

High-res: A digital image with a resolution of 200 dpi or more.

Kerning: Adjusting the amount of space between letters or characters so that letter spacing appears to be in balance.

Leading: The amount of vertical space between lines of type.

Low-res: A digital image with a resolution of 100 dpi or less.

Mask: A means of isolating a portion of an image from its surrounding area so that it becomes a silhouette or outline image.

Matte: A flat, not glossy finish.

Moiré: Undesirable patterns in printed halftones caused by improperly aligned screens.

ND: Stands for Non-Descript. Art Department is often asked non-descript items to place in the background. For example: A graphic designer may be asked to create ND paperwork which is general paperwork that could be used in the background in any set and is not specific to a certain type of office.

Proof: A test sheet made to represent how a final printed product will look so that flaws may be corrected before the piece is printed.

Raster: A pattern of closely spaced rows of dots that form an image (as on the cathode-ray tube of a television or computer display).

Raster Image Processing (RIP):  Converting digital files to bitmapped images that can be output on an imagesetter. The process is described as “ripping a file”.

RGB: Stands for Red, Green, and Blue, additive primary colours that are used to create a full range of colour as projected light on a computer screen.

Sans Serif: A font without decorative serifs. Typically with little stroke thickness variation, a larger x-height and no stress in rounded strokes.

Script: A typeface designed to imitate handwriting.

Serif: A small stroke at the end of a main vertical or horizontal stroke. Also used as a classification for typefaces that contain such decorative rounded, pointed, square, or slab serif finishing strokes.

Substrate: Any surface or material that is to be printed upon.

Typeface: Design of alphabetic letters, numbers, and symbols unified by consistent visual properties. Typeface properties are identified by name, such as Futura or Times New Roman.

Value: The lightness or darkness of a colour. Darker values where black is added are called shades. Lighter values where white is added are called tints or pastels.

Vector: Graphics that are made up using mathematical equations based on straight lines and curves. Vector graphics are infinitely scalable.

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